Reach Your Academic Goals.

Join Today to Score Better
Tomorrow.

Connect to the brainpower of an academic dream team. Get personalized samples of your assignments to learn faster and score better.

Connect to a Paper Expert

How can our experts help?

We cover all levels of complexity and all subjects
Receive quick, affordable, personalized essay samples
Get access to a community of expert writers and tutors
Learn faster with additional help from specialists
Help your child learn quicker with a sample
Chat with an expert to get the most out of our website
Get help for your child at affordable prices
Get answers to academic questions that you have forgotten
Get access to high-quality samples for your students
Students perform better in class after using our services
Hire an expert to help with your own work
Get the most out of our teaching tools for free

The Samples - a new way to teach and learn

Check out the paper samples our experts have completed. Hire one now to get your own personalized sample in less than 8 hours!

Competing in the Global and Domestic Marketplace:
Mary Kay, Inc.

Type
Case study
Level
College
Style
APA
Read Sample

Reservation Wage in Labor Economics

Type
Coursework
Level
College
Style
APA
Read Sample

Pizza Hut and IMC: Becoming a Multichannel Marketer

Type
Case study
Level
High School
Style
APA
Read Sample

Washburn Guitar Company: Break-Even Analysis

Type
Case study
Level
Undergraduate
Style
APA
Read Sample

Crime & Immigration

Type
Dissertation
Level
University
Style
APA
Read Sample

Interdisciplinary Team Cohesion in Healthcare Management

Type
Case study
Level
College
Style
APA
Read Sample

Customer care that warms your heart

Our support managers are here to serve!
Check out the paper samples our writers have completed. Hire one now to get your own personalized sample in less than 8 hours!
Hey, do you have any experts on American History?
Hey, he has written over 520 History Papers! I recommend that you choose Tutor Andrew
Oh wow, how do I speak with him?!
Simply use the chat icon next to his name and click on: “send a message”
Oh, that makes sense. Thanks a lot!!
Guaranteed to reply in just minutes!
Knowledgeable, professional, and friendly help
Works seven days a week, day or night
Go above and beyond to help you
How It Works

How Does Our Service Work?

Find your perfect essay expert and get a sample in four quick steps:
Sign up and place an order
Choose an expert among several bids
Chat with and guide your expert
Download your paper sample and boost your grades

Register a Personal Account

Register an account on the Studyfy platform using your email address. Create your personal account and proceed with the order form.

01
02

Submit Your Requirements & Calculate the Price

Just fill in the blanks and go step-by-step! Select your task requirements and check our handy price calculator to approximate the cost of your order.

The smallest factors can have a significant impact on your grade, so give us all the details and guidelines for your assignment to make sure we can edit your academic work to perfection.

Hire Your Essay Editor

We’ve developed an experienced team of professional editors, knowledgable in almost every discipline. Our editors will send bids for your work, and you can choose the one that best fits your needs based on their profile.

Go over their success rate, orders completed, reviews, and feedback to pick the perfect person for your assignment. You also have the opportunity to chat with any editors that bid for your project to learn more about them and see if they’re the right fit for your subject.

03
04

Receive & Check your Paper

Track the status of your essay from your personal account. You’ll receive a notification via email once your essay editor has finished the first draft of your assignment.

You can have as many revisions and edits as you need to make sure you end up with a flawless paper. Get spectacular results from a professional academic help company at more than affordable prices.

Release Funds For the Order

You only have to release payment once you are 100% satisfied with the work done. Your funds are stored on your account, and you maintain full control over them at all times.

Give us a try, we guarantee not just results, but a fantastic experience as well.

05

Enjoy a suite of free extras!

Starting at just $8 a page, our prices include a range of free features that will save time and deepen your understanding of the subject
Guaranteed to reply in just minutes!
Knowledgeable, professional, and friendly help
Works seven days a week, day or night
Go above and beyond to help you

Latest Customer Feedback

4.7

My deadline was so short

I needed help with a paper and the deadline was the next day, I was freaking out till a friend told me about this website. I signed up and received a paper within 8 hours!

Customer 102815
22/11/2020

4.3

Best references list

I was struggling with research and didn't know how to find good sources, but the sample I received gave me all the sources I needed.

Customer 192816
17/10/2020

4.4

A real helper for moms

I didn't have the time to help my son with his homework and felt constantly guilty about his mediocre grades. Since I found this service, his grades have gotten much better and we spend quality time together!

Customer 192815
20/10/2020

4.2

Friendly support

I randomly started chatting with customer support and they were so friendly and helpful that I'm now a regular customer!

Customer 192833
08/10/2020

4.5

Direct communication

Chatting with the writers is the best!

Customer 251421
19/10/2020

4.5

My grades go up

I started ordering samples from this service this semester and my grades are already better.

Customer 102951
18/10/2020

4.8

Time savers

The free features are a real time saver.

Customer 271625
12/11/2020

4.7

They bring the subject alive

I've always hated history, but the samples here bring the subject alive!

Customer 201928
10/10/2020

4.3

Thanks!!

I wouldn't have graduated without you! Thanks!

Customer 726152
26/06/2020

Frequently Asked Questions

For students

If I order a paper sample does that mean I'm cheating?

Not at all! There is nothing wrong with learning from samples. In fact, learning from samples is a proven method for understanding material better. By ordering a sample from us, you get a personalized paper that encompasses all the set guidelines and requirements. We encourage you to use these samples as a source of inspiration!

Why am I asked to pay a deposit in advance?

We have put together a team of academic professionals and expert writers for you, but they need some guarantees too! The deposit gives them confidence that they will be paid for their work. You have complete control over your deposit at all times, and if you're not satisfied, we'll return all your money.

How should I use my paper sample?

We value the honor code and believe in academic integrity. Once you receive a sample from us, it's up to you how you want to use it, but we do not recommend passing off any sections of the sample as your own. Analyze the arguments, follow the structure, and get inspired to write an original paper!

For teachers & parents

Are you a regular online paper writing service?

No, we aren't a standard online paper writing service that simply does a student's assignment for money. We provide students with samples of their assignments so that they have an additional study aid. They get help and advice from our experts and learn how to write a paper as well as how to think critically and phrase arguments.

How can I get use of your free tools?

Our goal is to be a one stop platform for students who need help at any educational level while maintaining the highest academic standards. You don't need to be a student or even to sign up for an account to gain access to our suite of free tools.

How can I be sure that my student did not copy paste a sample ordered here?

Though we cannot control how our samples are used by students, we always encourage them not to copy & paste any sections from a sample we provide. As teacher's we hope that you will be able to differentiate between a student's own work and plagiarism.















Socialism And Fascism Similarities

Karl Polanyi: The Emergence Of Market Society - More recently, Wang has developed a system for culturing zebrafish hearts outside the body for one month. That’s much longer than any other “in vitro” culture system. He is also investigating the regeneration of coronary blood vessels. The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute recently awarded Wang a grant for this research. Figure 1. Gene Expression Profiling of Zebrafish Heart Regeneration A total of genes are differentially expressed during zebrafish heart regeneration. These genes were clustered into groups using the hierarchical method based on the similarity of their expression patterns during heart regeneration at 3, 7, and 14 dpa. The color chart indicating. Aug 01,  · Gene Expression Profiling of Zebrafish Heart Regeneration. A total of genes are differentially expressed during zebrafish heart regeneration. These genes were clustered into groups using the hierarchical method based on the similarity of their expression patterns during heart regeneration at 3, 7, and 14 seopablosit.somee.com by: The Essay The Enduring Appeal Of Agatha Christie

Stalin Animal Farm

Stop All The Clocks Wh Auden

Child Abuse In Foster Care - Oct 23,  · Zebrafish heart regeneration occurs by cardiomyocyte dedifferentiation and proliferation. Nature , – (). ADS CAS Article Google Scholar. Nov 08,  · Because of this, scientists often study zebrafish to try to find ways to improve healing of heart injuries in humans. However, it is not yet known whether lymphatic vessels contribute to regeneration of zebrafish hearts. Now, Harrison et al. show that, in the zebrafish heart, lymphatic vessels develop after the coronary arteries. Jun 20,  · Other upstream regulators on the list such as TGFB1 and IGF1 have been reported to positively regulate heart regeneration in zebrafish (Chablais and Jazwinska, ; Huang et al., b), while factors such as RET, MITF, miRb and miR are potentially interesting candidates for future studies, as their roles in heart regeneration have not. Essay On Temperance And Prohibition

Simone De Beauvoirs The Ethics Of Ambiguity

Baroque Style Of The Palace Of Versailless Hall Of Mirrors

Personal Narrative: My False Jelly Sandwich - Zebrafish Heart Regeneration Lab Report Words | 7 Pages. When it comes to a species such as Zebrafish, they have the ability to regenerate their heart up to 20% after amputation in about one month. The purpose of this experiment is to determine the importance and origin of former cardiomyocytes and how they serve a role in regeneration. Nov 24,  · New research could help humans experience the benefits of regeneration, using components from a zebrafish to regenerate damaged and dead heart tissue. From the University of Pittsburgh, researchers applied extracellular matrices (ECMs) Author: Kara Marker. Pang, M., Xiong, C., Xiao, C., Du, J., Zheng, L., Bai, L., Zhu, X., Xiong, J.W. () Critical role of zebrafish dnajb5 in myocardial proliferation and regeneration. Assignment: Listening To Contemporary Christian Music

School Uniforms Persuasive Essay

Video Game Stereotypes Essay

symbols of canada - Apr 10,  · When turned on this genetic switch in zebrafish allows heart muscle cells (cardiomyocytes) to multiply after a heart attack, resulting in the complete regeneration and repair of damaged heart muscles. Unlike humans, zebrafish can replenish up to 60% of lost heart muscle or cardiomyocytes (CM) without adverse effects or scarring. Only some of the factors involved in this regeneration have been identified; others remain to be discovered. One major challenge has been to reveal master regulators that define regenerative capacity. Zebrafish Heart Regeneration Lab Report Words | 7 Pages. how they serve a role in regeneration. A cre/lox plus tamoxifen system is used to manipulate genetic material in cardiomyocytes and determine its original lineage. A major key finding is that Zebrafish cardiac muscle cells minimally switch up their pattern of genetic expression to an. rylands v fletcher 1868

Donna Bull Death Case Study

Why Is Friendship Important In To Kill A Mockingbird

Summary Of Gloria Anzalduas Immigrants - Sep 14,  · Human and zebrafish heart repair. Phases of repair/regeneration in human and zebrafish hearts post-injury, showing that initial inflammatory and scarring responses are similar, but the final stages diverge, with humans exhibiting persistent scar tissue and poor renewal of CMs. Jun 01,  · In the present study, we report for the first time, anti-inflammatory and pro-kinetic drugs can protect regenerative cells from aberrant apoptosis and promote fibrotic scar degradation in bre mutant zebrafish, thereby rescuing the heart regeneration ability after cardiac damage. The present findings provide evidence that KCHN2 is involved in. Oct 05,  · But, a tiny, striped, transparent fish outdoes them all — the zebrafish can repair and regenerate its heart, brain, retina, pancreas, spine, fins, and kidneys. That’s good news for us, because not only do zebrafish and humans have the same major organs and tissues, we share more than 80% of the same genes associated with human disease. Ted Bundy Personality

Importance of good nutrition

Essay On Medieval Religion

Najmahs Personality - In both Pachón and lrrcmutant zebrafish, high global myocardial proliferation is observed, albeit at 30 dpa in Pachón compared with 7dpi in lrrc10 mutants, suggesting that also the global proliferation normally observed in zebrafish after injury is not directly linked to heart regeneration. The late increase in endocardial proliferation on. Jul 09,  · It has been suggested that zebrafish CMs utilize similar regulatory mechanisms during cardiac development and regeneration (Poss et al, ; Jopling et al, ; Kikuchi et al, ; Wu et al, ).We have recently shown that glycolysis plays an important role during zebrafish cardiac development (Fukuda et al, ).Thus, we wanted to examine whether the expression levels of . Lab. Tao P Zhong's Lab signals that stimulate zebrafish heart regeneration have been identified, transcriptional programs that restrain injury-induced CM renewal are incompletely understood. Clara Bartons Role In The Civil War

Essay On Osama Bin Ladens Death

Analysis Of Quiet Strength By Tony Dungy

how is macbeth presented as a hero - ZEBRAFISH PUBLICATIONS OF LAB MEMBERS. Black, B.L., Stainier, D.Y. () Fast revascularization of the injured area is essential to support zebrafish heart regeneration. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. (40) The zebrafish is one of the most important models for developmental and regenerative biology, especially for cardiovascular research [1,2].The heart of an adult zebrafish is simple (two-chambered with a single atrium and ventricle) and small (≈1 mm 3), but its histological composition is similar to that of higher seopablosit.somee.com has been reported that the zebrafish heart regenerates fully. Aug 06,  · Missinato et al. showed that suppressing Dusp6 function, either by small molecules such as BCI and BCI or by gene inactivation, enhances zebrafish heart regeneration within 4–7 dpi but not beyond 12 dpi. Importantly, this effect was observed after cardiac amputation but not in uninjured hearts, implying that the effects of these compounds Cited by: the grapes of wrath movie

Charlie Gordon Character Analysis

Technology And Knowledge In Bram Stokers Dracula

How Does Shelley Use Alliteration In Ozymandias - Correlative evidence suggests that polyploidization of heart muscle, which occurs naturally in post-natal mammals, creates a barrier to heart regeneration. Here, we move beyond a correlation by demonstrating that experimental polyploidization of zebrafish cardiomyocytes is sufficient to suppress their proliferative potential during regeneration. Sep 01,  · Zebrafish regenerate heart muscle through division of pre-existing cardiomyocytes. To discover underlying regulation, we assess transcriptome datasets for dynamic gene networks during heart regeneration and identify suppression of genes associated with the transcription factor TpCited by: 8. Feb 04,  · Latest Lab News. Hong and Yuchen’s paper on adult zebrafish heart regeneration is accepted for publication in EMBO Reports. August 10, ; Li and Yuchen’s single cell dual-omics paper is accepted for publication in Cardiovascular Research. April 8, ; Dr. Liu was selected as the Yang Family Biomedical Scholar by the School of Medicine. Fennec Fox Research Paper

Themes Of John Steinbecks Of Mice And Men

The American Dream Character Analysis

Personal Narrative: Delwy Delwyn - Feb 14,  · Two months later, the zebrafish has completely regenerated its heart. If only we could do that. It turns out that zebrafish’s heart resembles that of the human heart so closely –70% of human genes are also found in the fish – it has made it a relevant and compelling model for research into how the heart develops and breaks. Jul 15,  · Scarred heart tissue that forms as a result of heart attacks ends up weakening the heart muscle, leaving a person more vulnerable to future heart complications. By studying the regeneration of zebrafish hearts and learning the underlying mechanisms, we can figure out how the process can eventually be induced in humans. In vivo injury and regeneration of the zebrafish heart. Using a cryoinjury procedure 26, we induced damage in adult zebrafish hearts. To dynamically monitor the regeneration process, we recovered samples at different post-injury times: 4hours (hpi), 1, 3, 7, 14 and 90 days (dpi). Injured hearts were compared to healthy. why is confidentiality important in health and social care

Racial Adversity In The Movie Remember The Titans

St Perpetua Analysis

Atticus Finch A Role Model Essay - Nov 12,  · CHLA researchers discover a mechanism of heart regeneration in zebrafish. One of the reasons coronary heart disease is so deadly is that fluid build-up Estimated Reading Time: 3 mins. Dear Colleagues, This Special Issue of the Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease focusses on the zebrafish as a model for heart development, regeneration and disease modelling. The zebrafish has become a very successful model for the study of heart development due to the ability to follow and image the heart throughout its development, the possibility of forward genetics and ease. Unique developmental trajectories and genetic regulation of ventricular and outflow tract progenitors in the zebrafish second heart field. Development. ^ co-first authors; * co-corresponding authors. PDF Gonzalez-Rosa JM, Burns CE, Burns CG. Zebrafish heart regeneration: 15 years of discoveries. Regeneration. 4(3. Patriotism In Wilfred Owens Anthem For Doomed Youth

Jane Eyre Psychoanalytic Analysis

Hound Of The Baskervilles Movie Analysis

Advantages Of Cost Curve - The zebrafish heart is similar to the human heart in many respects. But unlike the human heart, the fish heart closes wounds rapidly and then regenerates to. Ccn2a/Ctgfa is an injury-induced matricellular factor that promotes cardiac regeneration in zebrafish. Development. Nov dev doi: /dev Online ahead of print. PMID: Chen A, Han Y, Poss KD. (). Regulation of zebrafish fin regeneration by vitamin D signaling. Dev Dyn. Oct doi: /dvdy Epub ahead. When the zebrafish heart is damaged, the wound site is rapidly sealed with a fibrin clot that stems bleeding within seconds. Following clot formation, the ti. Participation Trophy Research Paper

Examples Of Obsession In The Tell Tale Heart

Antoine Joness Participation In The Drug Trade

Essay On Chlamydia - Apr 17,  · After myocardial infarction in the mammalian heart, millions of cardiomyocytes are lost and replaced by fibrotic scar tissue. While fibrosis is persistent in adult mammals, there are some vertebrates, including zebrafish, with the capacity for regeneration. This process does not occur in the absence of fibrosis. Here we studied subpopulations of collagen-producing cells and analyzed their . Fast revascularization of the injured area is essential to support zebrafish heart regeneration. PNAS , (40) *Co-corresponding author; Marín-Juez R, Rovira M, Crespo D, van der Vaart M, Spaink HP, Planas JV. GLUT2-mediated glucose uptake and availability are required for embryonic brain development in zebrafish. Poss Lab. Report this profile Translational profiling of cardiomyocytes identifies an early Jak1/Stat3 injury response required for zebrafish heart regeneration PNAS August 13, Title: Resident Physician at . Donald Scott Chaney Case Summary

Low Calorie Sweeteners

Individuality In The Chocolate War

Suicidal Thoughts In Shakespeares Romeo And Juliet - Oct 23,  · Zebrafish are extremely well suited to study organ regeneration. After heart injury, zebrafish cardiomyocytes can divide and the scar is replaced by new cardiac muscle. The group of Nadia Mercader. Oct 27,  · Heart failure occurs when the heart cannot pump enough blood to meet the body’s demands. The heart most often weakens through the loss of muscle cells, called cardiomyocytes. Heart failure is a devastating disease, and one possible cure is to replace the lost cardiomyocytes through regeneration. Unlike humans, zebrafish can efficiently regenerate their hearts after injury. Note: During the writing of this piece, we became aware of another recent publication on the use of biotinylated proximity-based proteomics in zebrafish from the Poss lab (Pronobis et al., ). Here, the authors successfully characterized the cardiac proteome during injury and regeneration. Titanium Research Paper

Examples Of Jealousy In The Lady Or The Tiger

Analysis Of Adrenoleukodystrophy In The Film Lorenzos Oil

Capitalism And Freedom Friedman Analysis - Feb 14,  · Cut a zebrafish’s heart and something remarkable happens. Within seconds, the fish clots the wound and stops the bleeding. Cells start to divide to make new heart muscle and blood vessels. Two months later, the zebrafish has completely regenerated its heart. If only we could do that. It turns out that zebrafish’s heart resembles that of. the great gatsby storyline

Shellabration Case Study

How To Win Your Girlfriend Back

Carl Jungs Use Of Archetypes In Finding Nemo - Essay On Liberty City

Gothic story ideas

Operation Management Case Study Nissan

Why Did Hitler Commit Suicide - Scoop Importance

The Reluctant Fundamentalist Play Analysis

Derma Gieo Serum Research Paper

Examples Of Manipulation In Othello - Small Population Effects

Successful Relationships Essay

Essay On Synthetic Hair Extensions

Forest Degradation - Great Depression Impact

Political Regime In North Korea Essay

Pinterest.com

Zebrafish Heart Regeneration Lab Report


Mammalian hearts cannot regenerate. The mechanism of zebrafish heart regeneration is not understood. To systematically characterize this process at the molecular level, we generated transcriptional profiles of zebrafish cardiac regeneration by microarray analyses. Distinct gene clusters were identified based on temporal Zebrafish Heart Regeneration Lab Report patterns. Comparisons of gene expression profiles between Zebrafish Heart Regeneration Lab Report and fin regeneration revealed a set of regeneration core molecules as well as tissue-specific factors. The expression patterns of several secreted molecules around the wound suggest that they play important roles in heart regeneration. We found that both platelet-derived growth factor-a and -b pdgf-a and pdgf-b are upregulated in regenerating zebrafish hearts.

In addition, we demonstrate that a chemical inhibitor of PDGF receptor decreases DNA Zebrafish Heart Regeneration Lab Report of cardiomyocytes both in vitro and in vivo during regeneration. Our data indicate that zebrafish Zebrafish Heart Regeneration Lab Report regeneration is associated with sequentially Zebrafish Heart Regeneration Lab Report wound healing genes and growth factors and suggest that PDGF signaling is required. PLoS Biol 4 8 : e Military terms of the treaty of versailles is an open-access article Emile Durkheim Anomie Suicide Analysis under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original Zebrafish Heart Regeneration Lab Report and source are credited.

Reynolds Foundation. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Injured mammalian hearts cannot regenerate; instead, they scar. Mammalian cardiomyocytes undergo hypertrophy lestrange v graucob compensate for the loss of cardiac cells. Although it has been reported that cardiomyocytes in diseased human hearts can proliferate [ 1 ], most evidence suggests that this is not a major response after heart injury [ 2 ]. Some reports have suggested that bone marrow stem cells and cardiac stem cells may play a role in Zebrafish Heart Regeneration Lab Report regeneration in humans, Rhetorical Analysis Of Budweisers Puppy Love this remains controversial [ 3 — Zebrafish Heart Regeneration Lab Report ].

By contrast with mammals, newt and zebrafish hearts regenerate after amputation [ 67 ]. The molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon have not been characterized in newts because of a lack of genetic tools. Thus, the zebrafish provides a genetically tractable model system in which to study the molecular mechanisms of heart regeneration. Zebrafish heart regeneration occurs over a 2-mo period [ 8 ]. After amputation, a blood clot forms to seal the ventricle and stop bleeding.

The blood clot is replaced Atticus Finch A Role Model Essay a fibrin clot at 2 to Zebrafish Heart Regeneration Lab Report d postamputation Zebrafish Heart Regeneration Lab Report. The regenerating myocardium is derived from cardiomyocytes surrounding the wound that reenter the cell cycle, presumably in response to Zebrafish Heart Regeneration Lab Report from the wound [ 10 ]. Cardiomyocytes initiate DNA synthesis and proliferation at 7 dpa. Between 7 and 14 dpa, DNA synthesis and proliferation of cardiomyocytes reach a peak [ 8 ].

Nascent cardiomyocytes replace most of the lost ventricular tissue by 30 dpa, and the structure Zebrafish Heart Regeneration Lab Report the heart is Zebrafish Heart Regeneration Lab Report restored at 60 dpa [ 8 ]. Elucidating the molecular mechanism of zebrafish heart regeneration may provide insight into potential therapeutic approaches for heart injury in humans.

In an effort to identify genes important for heart Compare And Contrast Tang And Song Dynasty, we tested Zebrafish Heart Regeneration Lab Report zebrafish mutants defective in fin regeneration also have heart regeneration defects. Two fin regeneration mutants, ncp [ 8Comparing Big Fish And Yann Martels Life Of Pi ] and nbl [ 12 ], are also defective The Smokey: A Short Story heart regeneration.

Using a candidate gene approach, Raya et al. Collectively, these studies Strengths And Weaknesses In Accounting little information on the initiation and overall progression of heart regeneration, prompting us to take a more systematic approach. In order to identify genes that are important for zebrafish heart regeneration, we utilized microarray technology to carry out gene expression profiling of regenerating hearts at 3, 7, and 14 dpa. Distinct gene clusters were identified according to their temporal expression patterns and were classified into different functional categories.

Comparisons of gene expression profiles between regenerating hearts and fins suggest that these two processes share common molecules but also use tissue-specific factors. To identify Moral Vigilantism In Alan Moores V For Vendetta that trigger regeneration, we focused our analysis on secreted molecules. In addition, treatment with a chemical inhibitor of PDGF receptor Seeking Asian Woman Analysis in a decrease in DNA synthesis in vitro and in regenerating hearts in vivo.

These data suggest that PDGF signaling is required for zebrafish heart regeneration and show that microarray analysis is a Zebrafish Heart Regeneration Lab Report approach to study the molecular mechanisms of this process. To identify molecular signals that initiate regeneration, we focused our gene expression profile analysis on the early stages of zebrafish heart regeneration. Sham-operated hearts and Zebrafish Heart Regeneration Lab Report hearts were collected at 3, 7, and 14 dpa. Zebrafish Heart Regeneration Lab Report enrich for transcripts that are involved Zebrafish Heart Regeneration Lab Report regeneration, we dissected one third of the ventricle containing the amputation plane.

Ten to 12 heart regenerates were dissected and pooled for analysis. We used Affymetrix zebrafish GeneChips to perform transcriptional profiling. This allowed simultaneous analysis of approximately Zebrafish Heart Regeneration Lab Report, transcripts. We identified transcripts that are differentially expressed in at least one of the three Zebrafish Heart Regeneration Lab Report points tested during the regeneration process Dataset S1. Hierarchical clustering revealed groups of genes that were expressed at different time points during regeneration Figures 1 and S1.

Pairwise comparisons revealed that regenerating hearts at 3 dpa had the highest number of differentially expressed genes and that regenerating hearts at 3 dpa and 7 dpa shared a high percentage of genes with increased expression Zebrafish Heart Regeneration Lab Report 1. A total of genes are differentially expressed during zebrafish heart regeneration. These genes were clustered into groups using the hierarchical method based on the similarity of their expression patterns during heart regeneration at 3, 7, and 14 dpa. The color chart indicating fold change of expression uses a base Zebrafish Heart Regeneration Lab Report scale.

Red and green represent increased and decreased expression, respectively. Pairwise comparisons revealed that regenerating hearts at Zebrafish Heart Regeneration Lab Report dpa had the most differentially expressed genes and that 3 dpa and 7 dpa regenerating hearts shared a high percentage of genes that had increased expression during regeneration. Expression of genes Representative genes in each cluster are illustrated in Figure S1. In summary, microarray analysis of zebrafish heart regeneration has revealed a set of genes that likely regulate multiple steps of the initial stages of this regeneration process.

We clustered these differentially expressed genes Zebrafish Heart Regeneration Lab Report to different functional categories and expression patterns Dataset S1. The expression of these genes most likely reflects the recruitment of inflammatory cells to the Zebrafish Heart Regeneration Lab Report site after the injury. Expression of a set of secreted molecules began at Edward Lorenz: The Butterfly Effect dpa and expression levels reached a peak at 7 dpa Figure 2 A and 2 How was hurricane katrina formed. These molecules are involved in the regulation of the extracellular matrix [ 1516 ], suggesting that extensive tissue remodeling occurs at later stages of heart regeneration.

A Genes encoding Zebrafish Heart Regeneration Lab Report response and inflammatory factors, secreted molecules, and MMPs were clustered based Kidney Failure Research Paper their expression patterns at 3, 7, and 14 Zebrafish Heart Regeneration Lab Report.

The gene name, gene symbol, and fold change of each gene can be found in Dataset S1. The color chart indicates fold change of expression, and red and green represent increased and decreased expression, respectively. Genes coding for secreted molecules begin to express at Zebrafish Heart Regeneration Lab Report dpa and the expression level reach Zebrafish Heart Regeneration Lab Report peak at 7 dpa. The MMPs start to express at 7 dpa and last until 14 dpa. The RT-PCR results confirmed the temporal expression patterns of these genes as determined by microarray analysis.

To determine whether zebrafish heart and fin regeneration share common mechanisms, we compared the gene expression profiles between these two processes. Of transcripts that are differentially expressed during heart regeneration, genes were also differentially expressed during fin regeneration Table S1 and [ 17 ]. One hundred nineteen transcripts were upregulated and 13 transcripts were why did apartheid happen during both heart and fin regeneration. This is consistent with our previous findings that ncp mutants are defective for both heart and fin regeneration [ 811 ].

Among these genes, transcripts coding for extracellular matrix and cell adhesion proteins represented the most differentially expressed genes, suggesting that tissue remodeling and cell migration play important roles in both heart and fin regeneration. However, there Personal Narrative: Parliamentary Procedure transcripts that were differentially expressed only during heart regeneration but not significantly changed during fin regeneration, and more than genes that were differentially expressed during fin regeneration [ 17 ] but not significantly changed during heart regeneration.

In addition, 11 transcripts showed opposite expression patterns between fin and heart regeneration Table S1. Collectively, these data indicate that a set of core molecules are differentially regulated in both zebrafish heart and fin regeneration but that many tissue-specific factors are also required. What are the signals that initiate heart regeneration, and where do they originate? Most proliferating cardiomyocytes are localized to the lateral sides of the wound [ 8 ]. Thus, it is likely that initiation signals for postinjury cardiomyocyte proliferation are secreted molecules from the wound [ 10 ].

Zebrafish Heart Regeneration Lab Report temporal expression patterns of these secreted factors as determined by microarray analysis were independently confirmed by semiquantitative Zebrafish Heart Regeneration Lab Report Figure 2 C. Finally, cxcl12, which is involved in stem cell mobilization [ 22 ], was upregulated at 7 and 14 dpa Figures S1 and 2. We examined the spatial expression patterns of some of these genes by in situ hybridization.

Interestingly, apoEb expression was detected around the wound and also inside the trabecular myocardium. The spotted expression pattern suggests that the cells expressing apoEb might be infiltrating macrophages Figure 3 A. Similar expression patterns of apoEb by infiltrating macrophages were also reported for regenerating fin [ 23 ]. We also determined the Zebrafish Heart Regeneration Lab Report pattern of midkine a. Consistent with the microarray and RT-PCR data, midkine a expression in the regenerating heart started at 3 dpa, peaked at 7 dpa, and lasted to 14 dpa Figure 3 B.

B Expression level of midkine a was upregulated from 3 dpa, reaches a peak at 7 dpa and lasts until 14 dpa. It appears to be expressed around the wound site in the compact layer of myocardium and the epicardium. Sense probes for each gene were used as Zebrafish Heart Regeneration Lab Report controls. A dashed line marks the amputation plane. The zebrafish pdgf-b gene was not Police Personality Analysis on the Affymetrix genome array and had not been previously cloned. To determine the expression pattern of pdgf-b, we performed radioactive in situ hybridization. As shown in Figure 4 B, pdgf-b Zebrafish Heart Regeneration Lab Report to be expressed in the regenerating heart around the wound.

The upregulation of pdgf-a and - b at 7 dpa coincides with the time Zebrafish Heart Regeneration Lab Report in which DNA replication starts to increase in cardiomyocytes. Thus, PDGF signaling may play a critical role in initiating cardiomyocyte proliferation Zebrafish Heart Regeneration Lab Report zebrafish heart Zebrafish Heart Regeneration Lab Report. Expression of pdgf-b began to increase at 3 dpa and lasted until 14 dpa during zebrafish heart regeneration. B In situ hybridization using a radioactive antisense probe showing pdgf-b expression in sham-operated and regenerating hearts at 7 dpa. Expression of Pt1320 Unit 3 Assignment 1 was localized to the wound site.

A radioactive sense probe was used as a negative control. The dashed red line marks the amputation plane. Zebrafish hearts regenerate by cardiomyocyte proliferation.

Web hosting by Somee.com